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 FOOD ADDITIVES

 

 

Acesulfame K
Alginate
Alpha Tocopherol
Artificial And Natural Flavoring
Ascorbic Acid
Aspartame
Beta-Carotene

Brominated Vegetalbe Oil
Butylated Hydroxyanisole
Butylated Hydroxytoluene
Caffeine
Calcium
Sodium
Carrageenan
Casien, Sodium Caseinate
Citric Acid, Sodium Citrate
Cochineal Or Carmine
Corn Syrup
Dextrose
 

ACESULFAME K


(everyone should avoid)

Artificial sweetener. (Chewing gum, diet soft drinks, frozen desserts, gelatin, no-sugar-added baked goods, tabletop sweetener [Sunett].) The only safety tests-poorly done studies conducted in the 1970?s-indicate that acesulfame K may cause cancer.

Safe:

These appear to be safe, though a few people may be allergic to any single additive.

Cut back:
These are non toxic, but large amounts may be unsafe or unhealthy.

Caution:
These may pose a risk and need to better tested.

Certain People Should Avoid:
These cause allergic or other reactions in some people.

Everyone Should Avoid:
These are unsafe in the amounts consumed or are very poorly tested.


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ALGINATE

 



(safe)
Foam stabilizers, thickening agents. (Beer, candy, ice cream, yogurt.) Alginate is made from seaweed (kelp) and thickens dairy products, canned frostings, and other foods. Propylene glycol alginate thickens acidic foods like salad dressing. It also can stabilize the foam in beer.

Safe:

These appear to be safe, though a few people may be allergic to any single additive.

Cut back:
These are non toxic, but large amounts may be unsafe or unhealthy.

Caution:
These may pose a risk and need to better tested.

Certain People Should Avoid:
These cause allergic or other reactions in some people.

Everyone Should Avoid:
These are unsafe in the amounts consumed or are very poorly tested.

 

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ALPHA TOCOPHEROL



(Vitamin E) (Safe)

Antioxidant, nutrient. (Vegetable oil.) Vitamin E occurs naturally in nuts, whole grains, and oils. Small amounts are also added to oils to keep them from going rancid.

Safe:

These appear to be safe, though a few people may be allergic to any single additive.

Cut back:
These are non toxic, but large amounts may be unsafe or unhealthy.

Caution:
These may pose a risk and need to better tested.

Certain People Should Avoid:
These cause allergic or other reactions in some people.

Everyone Should Avoid:
These are unsafe in the amounts consumed or are very poorly tested.

 

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  ARTIFICIAL AND NATURAL FLAVORING

(certain people should avoid)


Breakfast cereal, candy, gelatin dessert, soda, many other foods.) Most of the hundreds of chemicals used to mimic natural flavors also occur in nature and are probably safe. But flavorings are often used in junk foods to mask the absence of natural ingredients (often fruit). Flavorings may include additives like MSG or HVP, to which some people are sensitive.

Safe:
These appear to be safe, though a few people may be allergic to any single additive.

Cut back:
These are non toxic, but large amounts may be unsafe or unhealthy.

Caution:
These may pose a risk and need to better tested.

Certain People Should Avoid:
These cause allergic or other reactions in some people.

Everyone Should Avoid:
These are unsafe in the amounts consumed or are very poorly tested.

 

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ASCORBIC ACID

(Vitamin C) (safe)


Antioxidant, color stabilizer, nutrient. (Cereal, cured meat, fruit drinks.) It helps maintain the red color of luncheon meats and other cured foods, and it prevents the formation of cancer-promoting nitrosamines (see Sodium Nitrite). Vitamin C is also used to pump up the vitamin content of many foods, including ,fruit, drinks. Sodium ascorbate is a form of ascorbic acid that dissolves easily. Erythorbic acid is similar to ascorbic acid, but it has no value as a vitamin.

Safe:
These appear to be safe, though a few people may be allergic to any single additive.

Cut back:
These are non toxic, but large amounts may be unsafe or unhealthy.

Caution:
These may pose a risk and need to better tested.

Certain People Should Avoid:
These cause allergic or other reactions in some people.

Everyone Should Avoid:
These are unsafe in the amounts consumed or are very poorly tested.

 

 

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ASPARTAME

(Nutrasweet)

(caution, certain people should avoid)



Artificial sweetener. (Diet foods like drink mixes, frozen desserts, no-sugar-added gelatin, and soft drinks; tabletop sweetener [Equal].) Some of its cancer tests raised questions and should be repeated. Some people report dizziness, hallucinations, or headaches after drinking diet soda, but controlled studies haven't confirmed a link. If you think you react to aspartame-or if you have the rare disease PKU (phenylketonuria)-avoid it.

Safe:
These appear to be safe, though a few people may be allergic to any single additive.

Cut back:
These are non toxic, but large amounts may be unsafe or unhealthy.

Caution:
These may pose a risk and need to better tested.

Certain People Should Avoid:
These cause allergic or other reactions in some people.

Everyone Should Avoid:
These are unsafe in the amounts consumed or are very poorly tested.

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BETA-CAROTENE

(safe)



Coloring, nutrient. (Coffee creamer, margarine.) It's an orange pigment that the body converts into vitamin A. In two studies, large doses of beta-carotene supplements increased the risk of lung cancer in smokers. . .and didn't reduce cancer risk in non-smokers. Smokers shouldn't take high-dose beta-carotene supplements, but the small amounts added to food are safe.

Safe:
These appear to be safe, though a few people may be allergic to any single additive.

Cut back:
These are non toxic, but large amounts may be unsafe or unhealthy.

Caution:
These may pose a risk and need to better tested.

Certain People Should Avoid:
These cause allergic or other reactions in some people.

Everyone Should Avoid:
These are unsafe in the amounts consumed or are very poorly tested.


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BROMINATED VEGETABLE OIL




(BVO) (caution)

Clouding agent, emulsifier. (Soft drinks.) It's occasionally used to keep flavor oils in suspension and give a cloudy appearance to citrus-flavored soft drinks. Small residues of BVO remain in body fat, but it's unclear whether they pose any risk.

Safe:
These appear to be safe, though a few people may be allergic to any single additive.

Cut back:
These are non toxic, but large amounts may be unsafe or unhealthy.

Caution:
These may pose a risk and need to better tested.

Certain People Should Avoid:
These cause allergic or other reactions in some people.

Everyone Should Avoid:
These are unsafe in the amounts consumed or are very poorly tested.

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BUTYLATED HYDROXYANISOLE




(BHA) (caution)

Antioxidant. (Cereal packaging, chewing gum, oil, potato chips.) It retards the rancidity in fats, oils, and foods that contain oil. While most research indicates that BHA is safe, it increased the risk of cancer in some rat studies.

Safe:
These appear to be safe, though a few people may be allergic to any single additive.

Cut back:
These are non toxic, but large amounts may be unsafe or unhealthy.

Caution:
These may pose a risk and need to better tested.

Certain People Should Avoid:
These cause allergic or other reactions in some people.

Everyone Should Avoid:
These are unsafe in the amounts consumed or are very poorly tested.

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BUTYLATED HYDROXYTOLUENE





(BHT) (caution)

Antioxidant. (Cereal, chewing gum, oil, potato chips.) It keeps oils from going rancid. In some animal studies it increased the risk of cancer; in others it decreased the risk.

Safe:
These appear to be safe, though a few people may be allergic to any single additive.

Cut back:
These are non toxic, but large amounts may be unsafe or unhealthy.

Caution:
These may pose a risk and need to better tested.

Certain People Should Avoid:
These cause allergic or other reactions in some people.

Everyone Should Avoid:
These are unsafe in the amounts consumed or are very poorly tested.


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CAFFEINE



(cut back)

Flavoring, stimulant. (Added to soft drinks and water. Naturally occurring in cocoa, coffee, coffee-flavored yogurt and frozen deserts, tea.) It's mildly addictive and can cause insomnia and jitteriness. Many coffee drinkers experience headaches, irritability, sleepiness, and other withdrawal symptoms when they go cold turkey. Because caffeine increases the risk of miscarriages (and possibly birth defects) and inhibits fetal growth, women who are pregnant or considering becoming pregnant should avoid it. Caffeine also may make it harder to get pregnant.

Safe:
These appear to be safe, though a few people may be allergic to any single additive.

Cut back:
These are non toxic, but large amounts may be unsafe or unhealthy.

Caution:
These may pose a risk and need to better tested.

Certain People Should Avoid:
These cause allergic or other reactions in some people.

Everyone Should Avoid:
These are unsafe in the amounts consumed or are very poorly tested.


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CALCIUM




(or Sodium) Propionate (safe)

Preservative. (Bread, cake, pies, rolls.) It prevents the growth of mold on bread and rolls. The calcium is good for you and the propionate is safe. Sodium propionate, which is also safe, is used in pies and cakes, because calcium interferes with chemical leavening agents.

Safe:
These appear to be safe, though a few people may be allergic to any single additive.

Cut back:
These are non toxic, but large amounts may be unsafe or unhealthy.

Caution:
These may pose a risk and need to better tested.

Certain People Should Avoid:
These cause allergic or other reactions in some people.

Everyone Should Avoid:
These are unsafe in the amounts consumed or are very poorly tested.


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SODIUM



Stearoyl Lactylate or Sodium Stearoyl Fumarate (safe)

Dough conditioner, whipping agent. (Artificial whipped cream, bread dough, cake filling, processed egg whites.) They strengthen bread dough so that it can be used in bread-making machinery. They help produce a more uniform grain and greater bread volume. And they act as whipping agents in dried, liquid, or frozen egg whites and artificial whipped cream.

Safe:
These appear to be safe, though a few people may be allergic to any single additive.

Cut back:
These are non toxic, but large amounts may be unsafe or unhealthy.

Caution:
These may pose a risk and need to better tested.

Certain People Should Avoid:
These cause allergic or other reactions in some people.

Everyone Should Avoid:
These are unsafe in the amounts consumed or are very poorly tested.


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CARRAGEENAN


 



(safe)

Stabilizing and thickening agent. (Chocolate milk, cottage cheese, ice cream, infant formula, jelly.) It comes from seaweed. Large amounts have damaged the colons of test animals, though the small amount in food is safe.

Safe:
These appear to be safe, though a few people may be allergic to any single additive.

Cut back:
These are non toxic, but large amounts may be unsafe or unhealthy.

Caution:
These may pose a risk and need to better tested.

Certain People Should Avoid:
These cause allergic or other reactions in some people.

Everyone Should Avoid:
These are unsafe in the amounts consumed or are very poorly tested.


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CASEIN, SODIUM CASEINATE

(safe)

Thickening and whitening agent. (Coffee creamer, ice cream, ice milk, sherbet.) Casein is the principal protein in milk.

Safe:
These appear to be safe, though a few people may be allergic to any single additive.

Cut back:
These are non toxic, but large amounts may be unsafe or unhealthy.

Caution:
These may pose a risk and need to better tested.

Certain People Should Avoid:
These cause allergic or other reactions in some people.

Everyone Should Avoid:
These are unsafe in the amounts consumed or are very poorly tested.


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CITRIC ACID, SODIUM CITRATE 


(safe)

Acid, chelating agent, flavoring. (Candy, carbonated beverages, fruit drinks, ice cream, instant potatoes, sherbet.) Citric Acid is used as a tart flavoring and an antioxidant. Sodium citrate is a buffer that controls the acidity of gelatin desserts, jams, ice creams, candies, and other foods.

Safe:
These appear to be safe, though a few people may be allergic to any single additive.

Cut back:
These are non toxic, but large amounts may be unsafe or unhealthy.

Caution:
These may pose a risk and need to better tested.

Certain People Should Avoid:
These cause allergic or other reactions in some people.

Everyone Should Avoid:
These are unsafe in the amounts consumed or are very poorly tested.


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COCHINEAL OR CARMINE




(certain people should avoid)

Artificial coloring. (Beverages, candy, ice cream, yogurt.) Cochineal extract is a coloring made from the dried and pulverized bodies of insects. Carmine is a more purified coloring made from cochineal. Both have caused allergic reactions that range from hives to life-threatening anaphylactic shock.

Safe:
These appear to be safe, though a few people may be allergic to any single additive.

Cut back:
These are non toxic, but large amounts may be unsafe or unhealthy.

Caution:
These may pose a risk and need to better tested.

Certain People Should Avoid:
These cause allergic or other reactions in some people.

Everyone Should Avoid:
These are unsafe in the amounts consumed or are very poorly tested.

 

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CORN SYRUP


(cut back)

Sweetener, thickener. (Beverages, cake, candy, cereal, cookies, snack food, syrup, yogurt.) Corn syrup-which consists mostly of dextrose- is a sweet thick liquid made by treating cornstarch with acids or enzymes. It is sometimes dried and used as corn syrup solids in coffee creamers and other dried foods. It contains no nutritional value other than calories, it promotes tooth decay, and it is used mainly in foods with little nutritional value.

Safe:
These appear to be safe, though a few people may be allergic to any single additive.

Cut back:
These are non toxic, but large amounts may be unsafe or unhealthy.

Caution:
These may pose a risk and need to better tested.

Certain People Should Avoid:
These cause allergic or other reactions in some people.

Everyone Should Avoid:
These are unsafe in the amounts consumed or are very poorly tested.


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DEXTROSE


(Glucose, Corn Sugar) (cut back)

Sweetener, coloring agent. (Bread, caramel, cookies, soda pop.) Dextrose is a natural sugar that's found in fruit and honey. But it just means empty calories and tooth decay when it's added to foods as a sweetener.

Safe:
These appear to be safe, though a few people may be allergic to any single additive.

Cut back:
These are non toxic, but large amounts may be unsafe or unhealthy.

Caution:
These may pose a risk and need to better tested.

Certain People Should Avoid:
These cause allergic or other reactions in some people.

Everyone Should Avoid:
These are unsafe in the amounts consumed or are very poorly tested.

 

 

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