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 GLYCEMIC INDEX VALUES FOR DIFFERENT FOODS

 

 

The Simple vs. Complex Carbohydrate Debate


It was long thought that simple sugars are absorbed rapidly and lead to a rapid rise in blood glucose, while complex carbohydrates are absorbed more slowly, leading to more stable blood glucose levels. Recent research has found that this is not true. The rise in blood glucose levels is important because insulin release from the pancreas is triggered by the rise in blood glucose following carbohydrate ingestion.

 

Some simple sugars and foods containing them such as fructose, sucrose, apples and oranges are absorbed much slower and result in lower rise in blood glucose (and therefore blood insulin) than many complex carbohydrates. The indicator for how rapidly carbohydrates are digested and absorbed is called glycemic index. Foods with a low glycemic index are absorbed slowly, resulting in a low rise in blood glucose and correspondingly lower levels of insulin in the blood. Foods with a high glycemic index are absorbed rapidly, causing a large rise in blood glucose and blood insulin. Below are examples of some common foods? glycemic characteristics.

 

BAKED GOODS

Cake, sponge 48
Cake, banana, made with sugar 49
Cake, pound 56
Cake, banana, made without sugar 58
Pastry 61
Pizza, cheese 63
Muffins 64
Flan 68
Cake, angel food 69
Croissant 70
Crumpet 71
Donut 79
Waffles 79




 

BEVERAGES

Soy milk 31
Cordial, orange 67
Soft drink, Fanta 71
Lucozade 99

 

BREADS

Bürgen Soy Lin 20
Bürgen Oat Bran & Honey Loaf 31
Bürgen Mixed Grain 35
Barley kernel bread 41
Bürgen Fruit Loaf 45
Holsom's 47
Rye Kernel bread 48
Fruit loaf 50
Oat bran bread 50
Mixed grain bread 50
Pumpernickel 52
Bulger bread 55
Linseed rye bread 57
Pita bread, white 60
Hamburger bun 63
Rye flour bread 67
Semolina bread 67
Oat kernel bread 68
Barley flour bread 69
Wheat bread, high fiber 71
Wheat bread, wholemeal flour 71
Melba toast 73
Wheat bread, white 74
Bagel, white 75
Kaiser rolls 76
Whole-wheat snack bread 77
Bread stuffing 77
Wheat bread, Wonderwhite 82
Wheat bread, gluten free 94
French baguette 99

 

 

BREAKFAST CEREALS

Rice Bran 27
Kelloggs' All Bran Fruit 'n Oats 40
Kelloggs' Guardian 43
All-bran 44
Red River Cereal 51
Bran Buds 55
Special K 56
Oat Bran 57
Kelloggs' Honey Smacks 57
Muesli 58
Kelloggs' Mini-Wheats (whole wheat) 59
Bran Chex 61
Kelloggs' Just Right 61
Porridge (oatmeal) 63
Life 67
Nutri-grain 67
Grapenuts 70
Sustain 71
Shredded Wheat 72
Kelloggs' Mini-Wheats (blackcurrant) 72
Cream of Wheat 73
Wheat Biscuit 73
Golden Grahams 74
Pro Stars 74
Sultana Bran 74
Puffed Wheat 77
Cheerios 77
Corn Bran 78
Breakfast bar 79
Total 80
Cocopops 80
Post Flakes 83
Rice Krispies 85
Team #9;85
Corn Chex 86
Cornflakes 87
Crispix 90
Rice Chex 93
Rice Bubbles 93

 

CEREAL GRAINS

Barley, pearled 26
Rye 35
Wheat kernels 43
Rice, instant, boiled 1 min 47
Bulgur 50
Rice, parboiled 50
Rice, parboiled, high amylose 50
Barley, cracked 53
Wheat, quick cooking 56
Buckwheat 57
Sweet corn 57
Rice, specialty 57
Rice, brown 58
Rice, wild, Saskatchewan 59
Rice, white 60
Rice, white, high amylose 60
Couscous 68
Barley, rolled 69
Rice, Mahatma Premium 69
Taco shells 71
Cornmeal 71
Millet 74
Rice, Pedle 80
Rice, Sunbrown Quick 83
Tapioca, boiled with milk 84
Rice, Calrose 90
Rice, parboiled, low amylose Pelde 90
Rice, white, low amylose 92
Rice, instant, boiled 6 min 93

 

 

COOKIES

Oatmeal cookies 58
Rich Tea cookies 58
Digestives 61
Shredded Wheatmeal 65
Shortbread 66
Arrowroot 69
Graham Wafers 77
Vanilla Wafers 80
Morning Coffee cookies 82

 

CRACKERS

High Fibre Rye Crispread 68
Breton Wheat Crackers 70
Stoned Wheat Thins 70
Water Crackers 74
Rice Cakes 80
Puffed Crispbread 85

 

DAIRY FOODS

Yogurt, low fat, artifically sweet 14
Milk, chocolate, artifically sweet 25
Milk + 30 g bran 28
Milk, full fat 28
Milk, skim 34
Yogurt, low fat, fruit sugar sweet 34
Milk, chocolate, sugar sweetened 36
Yogurt, unspecified 37
Milk + custard + starch + sugar 44
Yakult (fermented milk) 47
Ice cream, low fat 52
Ice cream 63

 

FRUIT AND FRUIT PRODUCTS

Cherries 23
Grapefruit 26
Apricots, dried 32
Pear, fresh 39
Apple 39
Plum 40
Apple juice 42
Peach, fresh 44
Orange 46
Pear, canned 46
Grapes 48
Pineapple juice 48
Peach, canned 49
Grapefruit juice 50
Orange juice 54
Kiwifruit 55
Banana 56
Fruit cocktail 57
Mango 58
Sultanas 58
Apricots, fresh 60
Pawpaw 61
Apricots, canned, syrup 66
Raisins 66
Cantaloupe 68
Pineapple 69
Watermelon K

 

LEGUMES

Soya beans, canned 15
Soya beans 18
Lentils, red 26
Beans, dried, not specified 29
Lentils, not specified 30
Kidney beans 31
Lentils, green 31
Butter beans + 5 g. sucrose 31
Butter beans + 10 g. sucrose 32
Butter beans 32
Split peas, yellow, boiled 33
Lima beans, baby, frozen 34
Chick peas (garbanzo beans) 34
Kidney beans, autoclaved 36
Haricot/navy beans 39
Pinto beans 40
Chick peas, curry, canned 42
Black-eyed beans 43
Chick peas, canned 44
Pinto beans, canned 47
Romano beans 47
Baked beans, canned 50
Kidney beans, canned 54
Lentils, green, canned 54
Butter beans + 15 g. sucrose 56
Beans, dried, P. vulgaris 73
Broad beans (fava beans) 82

 

PASTA

Spaghetti, protein enriched 28
Fettuccine 34
Vermicelli 36
Spaghetti, wholemeal 39
Star pastina 39
Ravioli, durum, meat filled 41
Spaghetti, boiled 5 min 38
Spaghetti, white 43
Spirali, durum 44
Capellini 47
Macaroni 47
Linguine 47
Instant noodles 49
Tortellini, cheese 52
Spaghetti, durum 57
Macaroni and Cheese 67
Gnocchi 69
Rice pasta, brown 96

 

ROOT VEGETABLES

Yam 53
Sweet potato 56
Potato, white, not specified, boiled 58
Potato, new 59
Potato, white, Ontario 62
Potato, canned 63
Potato, Prince Edward Island, boiled 66
Beets 66
Potato, steamed 68
Potato mashed 73
Carrots 74
Swede (rutabaga) 75
Potato, boiled, mashed 76
French fries 78
Potato, microwaved 85
Potato, instant 86
Potato, baked 88
Parsnips 101

 

 

SNACK FOOD AND CONFECTIONARY

Peanuts 15
Mars M&Ms (peanut) 34
Mars Snickers Bar 42
Mars Twix Cookie Bars (caramel) 45
Mars Chocolate (Dove) 46
Chocolate 51
Potato crisps 56
Popcorn 57
Muesli Bars 63
Mars Kudos Bars(choc chip) 63


Mars Bar 66
Mars Skittles 71
Life Savers 73
Corn chips 77
Jelly beans 83
Pretzels 85

 

SOUPS

Tomato Soup 39
Lentil soup, canned 46
Split pea soup 63
Black bean soup 67
Green pea soup, canned 50

 

SUGARS

Fructose 23
Lactose 47
Honey 61
High fructose corn syrup 65

Sucrose 67
Glucose 100
Glucose tablets 107
Maltodextrin 109
Maltose 109

 

 

VEGETABLES

Peas, dried 23
Peas, green 50
Sweet corn 57
Pumpkin 78

 

INDIGENOUS FOODS

PIMA INDIAN:

Acorns stewed with venison 17
Mesquite cakes 26
Yellow teparies broth 30
White teparies broth 32
Lima beans broth 37
Corn tortilla w/desert ironwood 39
Corn hominy (not modern corn) 42
Fruit leather 73
Cactus jam 95

 

SOUTH AFRICAN:

Brown beans 34
M'fino wild greens 97
Maize meal porridge, unrefined 74
Maize meal porridge, refined 77

 

MEXICAN:

Nopal prickly pear cactus 7
Black beans 31
Brown beans 39

 

ASIAN INDIAN:

Bengal gram dal (chana dal) 9 (average of studies in India and South Africa)
Rajmah (red kidney beans) 20
Baisen(besan chick pea flour)chapati 28
Green gram (mung beans) 39
Barley chapati 44
Black gram 44
Black gram dal with semolina 48
Horse gram 53
Bengal gram dal with semolina 56
Whole greengram 59
Bajra (millet) 60
Maize chapati 65
Green gram dal with semolina 65
Semolina 69
Varagu 71
Banana, unripe, steamed 1 hr. 73
Tapioca, steamed 1 hr. 73
Jowar 80
Green gram dal + paspalum scorbic. 81
Ragi (or Raggi) 90

 

AUSTRALIAN ABORIGINAL:

Mulga seed (Acacia aneura) 8
Blackbean seed 8
Cheeky yam 36
Macrozamia communis 42
Bush honey, sugar bag 44
Bread (Acacia coriacea) 48
Bunya nut pine 49
Castanospermum australe 77

 

PACIFIC ISLAND FOODS:

Sweet potato (Ipamoea batatas) 46
Taro 56
Breadfruit 71

 

CHINESE FOODS:

Lungkow bean thread 27
Rice vermicelli 60

 

MISCELLANEOUS

Sausages 29
Vitari 29
So Good (Sanitarium) 31
Nutella spread(Ferrero) 34
Fish fingers 39
Ultracal 40
Sustagen Hospital Formula 44
VO2 Max Energy Bar(chocolate) 50
Power Bar (Powerfoods) 59
Tofu frozen desert, non-dairy 120

 

GI-BASED LIST:

Low Glycemic Index (GI<25)

Nopal prickly pear cactus 7
Mulga seed (Acacia aneura) 8
Blackbean seed 8
Bengal gram dal (chana dal) 9 (average of studies in India and South Africa)
Yogurt, low fat, artifically sweet 15
Soya beans, canned 15
Peanuts 15
Acorns stewed with venison 17
Soya beans 18
Rice Bran 20
Rajmah (red kidney beans) 20
Bürgen Soy Lin 20
Cherries 23
Fructose 23
Peas, dried 23

 

Low to Moderate Glycemic Index (25<GI<50)

Milk, chocolate, artifically sweet 25
Brown beans (South African) 25
Barley, pearled 26
Grapefruit 26 Lentils, red 26
Mesquite cakes 26
Lungkow bean thread 27
Spaghetti, protein enriched 28
Milk + 30 g bran 28
Milk, full fat 28
Baisen(besan chick pea flour)chapati 28
Beans, dried, not specified 29
Sausages 29
Vitari 29
Lentils, not specified 30
Yellow teparies broth 30
Kidney beans 31
Lentils, green 31
Black beans 31
Soy milk 31
Butter beans + 5 g. sucrose 31
So Good (Sanitarium) 31
Bürgen Oat Bran & Honey Loaf 31
So Good (Sanitarium) 31
Butter beans + 10 g. sucrose 32
Apricots, dried 32
Butter beans 32
White teparies broth 32
Split peas, yellow, boiled 33
Milk, skim 34
Lima beans, baby, frozen 34
Fettuccine 34
Mars M&Ms (peanut) 34
Nutella spread(Ferrero) 34
Yogurt, low fat, fruit sugar sweet 34
Chick peas (garbanzo beans) 34
Rye 34
Bürgen Mixed Grain Bread 35
Milk, chocolate, sugar sweetened 36
Kidney beans, autoclaved 36
Cheeky yam 36
Vermicelli 36
Yogurt, unspecified 37
Lima beans broth 37
Spaghetti, boiled 5 min 38
Pear, fresh 39
Spaghetti, wholemeal 39
Apple 39
Haricot/navy beans 39
Star pastina 39
Tomato Soup 39
Corn tortilla w/desert ironwood 39
Brown beans (Mexican) 39
Green gram (mung beans) 39
Fish fingers 39
Barley kernel bread 39
Plum 40
Pinto beans 40
Ultracal 40
Kelloggs' All Bran Fruit 'n Oats 40
Ravioli, durum, meat filled 41
Marrowfat, dried 41
Corn hominy (not modern corn) 42
Macrozamia communis 42
Mars Snickers Bar 42
Apple juice 42
Chick peas, curry, canned 42
Wheat kernels 43
Black-eyed beans 43
Spaghetti, white 43
Kelloggs' Guardian 43
All-bran 44
Peach, fresh 44
Chick peas, canned 44
Milk + custard + starch + sugar 44
Spirali, durum 44
Barley chapati 44
Black gram 44
Bush honey, sugar bag 44
Sustagen Hospital Formula 44<
Bürgen Fruit Loaf Bread 45
Mars Twix Cookie Bars (caramel) 45
Orange 46
Pear, canned 46
Lentil soup, canned 46
Sweet potato (Ipamoea batatas) 46
Mars Chocolate (Dove) 46
Pinto beans, canned 47
Capellini 47
Macaroni 47
Holsom's 47
Yakult (fermented milk) 47
Romano beans 47
Linguine 47
Rice, instant, boiled 1 min 47
Lactose 47
Cake, sponge 47
Rye Kernel bread 48
Grapes 48
Pineapple juice 48
Black gram dal with semolina 48
Bread (Acacia coriacea) 48
Cake, banana, made with sugar 49
Fruit loaf 49
Peach, canned 49
Instant noodles 49
Bunya nut pine 49

 

Moderate to High Glycemic Index (50<GI<75)

Oat bran bread 50
Bulgur 50
Rice, parboiled 50
Peas, green 50
Mixed grain bread 50
Rice, parboiled, high amylose 50
Grapefruit juice 50
Baked beans, canned 50
VO2 Max Energy Bar (chocolate) 50
Red River Cereal 51
Chocolate 51
Pumpernickel 52
Ice cream, low fat 52
Tortellini, cheese 52
Barley, cracked 52
Yam 53
Horse gram 53
Orange juice 54
Kidney beans, canned 54
Lentils, green, canned 54
Bulger bread 55
Bran Buds 55
Kiwifruit 55
Cake, pound 56
Special K 56
Wheat, quick cooking 56
Banana 56
Sweet potato 56
Potato crisps 56
Bengal gram dal with semolina 56
Taro 56
Butter beans + 15 g. sucrose 56
Linseed rye bread 57
Oat Bran 57
Buckwheat 57
Sweet corn 57
Rice, specialty 57
Spaghetti, durum 57
Kelloggs' Honey Smacks 57
Cake, banana, made without sugar 58
Rice, brown 58
Oatmeal cookies 58
Rich Tea cookies 58
Jatz 58
Fruit cocktail 58
Popcorn 58
Muesli 58
Mango 58
Sultanas 58
Potato, white, not specified, boiled 58
Rice, wild, Saskatchewan 59
Potato, new 59
Whole greengram 59
Kelloggs' Mini-Wheats (whole wheat)59
Power Bar (Powerfoods) 59
Pita bread, white 59
Apricots, fresh 59
Bajra (millet) 59
Honey 60
Bran Chex 60
Rice, white 60
Rice, white, high amylose 60
Pawpaw 60
Rice vermicelli 60
Pastry 61
Digestives 61
Kelloggs' Just Right 61
Potato, white, Ontario 62
Pizza, cheese 62
Split pea soup 62
Hamburger bun 63
Porridge (oatmeal) 63
Ice cream 63
Muesli Bars 63
Potato, canned 63
Mars Kudos Bars (choc chip) 63
Muffins 64
Shredded Wheatmeal 65
Maize chapati 65
Green gram dal with semolina 65
High fructose corn syrup 65
Potato, Prince Edward Island, boiled 66
Apricots, canned, syrup 66
Shortbread 66
Raisins 66
Beets 66
Mars Bar 66
Rye flour bread 67
Semolina bread 67
Macaroni and Cheese 67 Black bean soup 67
Sucrose 67
Cake, flan 68
Oat kernel bread 68
Couscous 68
High Fibre Rye Crispread 68 Cantaloupe 68
Potato, steamed 68
Barley, rolled 69
Cordial, orange 69
Life 69
Nutri-grain 69
Rice, Mahatma Premium 69
Pineapple 69
Green pea soup, canned 69
Semolina 69
Cake, angel food 69
Barley flour bread 69
Arrowroot 69
Gnocchi 69
Croissant 70
Grapenuts 70
Breton Wheat Crackers 70
Stoned Wheat Thins 70
Soft drink, Fanta 71
Sustain 71
Taco shells 71
M'fino wild greens 71
Varagu 71
Breadfruit 71
Wheat bread, high fiber 71
Crumpet 71
Cornmeal 71
Mars Skittles 71
Wheat bread, wholemeal flour 72
Shredded Wheat 72
Kelloggs' Mini-Wheats (blackcurrant) 72
Melba toast 73
Cream of Wheat 73
Wheat Biscuits 73
Sao 73
Beans, dried, P. vulgaris 73
Potato mashed 73
Life Savers 73
Fruit leather 73
Banana, unripe, steamed 1 hr. 73
Tapioca, steamed 1 hr. 73
Millet 74
Carrots 74
Maize meal porridge, unrefined 74
Wheat bread, white 74
Golden Grahams 74
Pro Stars 74
Water Crackers 74
Sultana Bran 74

 

 

High Glycemic Index (GI>75)

Bagel, white 75
Watermelon 75
Swede (rutabaga) 75
Kaiser rolls 76
Potato, boiled, mashed 76
Whole-wheat snack bread 76
Puffed Wheat 76
Corn chips 76
Bread stuffing 77
Cheerios 77
Graham Wafers 77
Maize meal porridge, refined 77
Castanospermum australe 77
Corn Bran 78
French fries 78
Pumpkin 78
Donut 78
Waffles 80
Breakfast bar 80
Total 80
Rice, Pedle 80
Cocopops 80
Vanilla Wafers 80
Rice Cakes 80
Jowar 80
Green gram dal + paspalum scorbic. 81
Wheat bread, Wonderwhite 82
Morning Coffee cookies 82
Broad beans (fava beans) 82
Post Flakes 83
Rice, Sunbrown Quick 83
Jelly beans 83
Tapioca, boiled with milk 84
Puffed Crispbread 85
Pretzels 85
Rice Krispies 85
Team 85
Potato, microwaved 85
Corn Chex 86
Potato, instant 86
Cornflakes 87
Potato, baked 88
Ragi (or Raggi) 90
Crispix 90
Rice, Calrose 90
Rice, parboiled, low amylose Pelde 90
Rice, white, low amylose 92
Rice Chex 93
Rice Bubbles 93
Rice, instant, boiled 6 min 93
Wheat bread, gluten free 94
Cactus jam 95
Rice pasta, brown 96
Lucozade 99
French baguette 99
Glucose 100
Parsnips 101
Glucose tablets 107
Maltose 109
Maltodextrin 109
Tofu frozen desert, non-dairy 120

Glycemic index was calculated using glucose as the reference with GI of 100. Values are from Foster-Powell and Brand Miller (1995) and other sources.